## 06/03/2007

### Invited Session in Symposium 3

**Invited Session in Symposium** **3**

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**Classical, Relativist and Quantum Optics and Electromagnetism**

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**Chairman:**

**Gilles Nibart **

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An Introduction to the Session for Prospective Authors

Using light signals to synchronize clocks, the Special Theory of Relativity has postulated that the velocity of light is the constant *c* in any uniform referential frame. But it is true only in a vacuum space without gravitation, electric nor magnetic field, as far as the velocity of an electromagnetic wave depends on the dielectric permittivity ε and the magnetic permeability μ of the refractive medium in which it propagates.

It is well known in Classical Optics that in anomalous dispersion medium the refractive index *n* may be lower than 1 near absorption wavelengths, allowing the group velocity to be greater than c. Furthermore, modern technology (using resonant structures) has conceived new medium with negative refraction index *n* < 0 which can be manufactured at microwave frequencies; they allows a negative group velocity.

Although free electromagnetic waves are supposed to be always transversal, it is well known that wave guides allows electromagnetic waves to run in TE or TM modes which have a longitudinal component. Some modern experiments have been able to produce non-TEM electromagnetic waves and throw them in free air space, showing a superluminal velocity.

In most experiments each photon has an intrinsic parity (-1) while in Quantum Theory, the computation of eigenfunctions of the total angular momentum operator ** j** =

**+**

*l***for the photon, has found three types of photon eigenfunctions with two parity equations**

*s**P*= (-1)

*or*

^{l}*P*= (-1)

^{l}^{+1}including a photon eigenfunctions associated to a longitudinal electromagnetic field (non-TEM mode).

Although the photon cannot exist at rest, light could be slowed down and could be captured, i.e. frozen in a 0°K cavity. Next it could be re-emitted with unchanged quantum states. Furthermore a slow light imaging process has been built, leading to quantum memory.

A theoretical “rest mass” of the photon has been experimentally tested by several authors.

The relativist Doppler effect is not the only cause of star redshifts, as similar redshifts can be observed in ionised hydrogen H_{2}^{+} at a low pressure, in laboratory experiments.

Quantum Field Theory with either its divergent integrals or its second normalization has not proven that particles are the fundamental components of fields. So it is suggested that (classical ?) fields might be the foundation of new particle models.

**Topics include, but are not limited to:**

- Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED).
- Non-Linear Optics.
- Advanced and Retarded Electromagnetic Waves
- Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Exotic Media.
- Theories and Experiments of Non-Doppler Redshift.
- Slow Light Imaging and Quantum Memory of Photon States.
- Experimental Limit of the Photon “Rest Mass”.
- Magnetic Splitting and Magnetic Scattering of Photons.
- Measurements of Photon Parity.
- Experimental Test of “Magnetic Photons”.
- New Models of Electron of Photon.

Gilles Nibart

Chairman

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**Gilles Nibart (Ingénieur E.S.P.C.I.)**

**Laboratoire de Physique Théorique Fondamentale de Paris**

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